Postmodernist Features in W. Gerhardie’s Novel “The Polyglots” ” P. 116-125.
Abstract. The article investigates the literary legacy of William Gerhardie, an Anglo-Russian novelist, whose works receive diametrically opposite reviews. Some give him ample praise, while others criticize his books for having neither artistic nor ideological merit. The aim of the article is to explore “The Polyglots”, W. Gerhardie’s famous novel about Russian civil war through the lens of postmodernist aesthetics and postmodernist worldview. W. Gerhardie’s novel is a prime example of 20th century literature with its conceptual unity and artistic synthesis. The article analyzes such postmodernist features of “The Polyglots” as epistemological doubt, metanarrative critique, perception of the world as something uncontrollably chaotic, non-hierarchical principle, destruction of binary oppositions, gaming essence, deconstruction, neobaroque worldview, intertextulaity, multigenre characteristics. Special attention is given to the analysis of the protagonist, the narrator of the story, whose consciousness glues together the random pieces of the mosaic of life and, being flexible and unstable, adds ambiguity, which is another postmodernist characteristic. One more postmodernist feature of the work is its metanarrative character. “The Polyglots” is a novel about a novel, a novel about the writing process. The article focuses on the influence of the Russian culture on Gerhardie’s artistic worldview, his ironic postmodernist interpretation of Russian writers’ literary legacy.
Keywords: gaming essence, intertextuality, metanarration, modernism, multigenre essence, postmodernism, Russian literature, chaos, epistemological doubt.
- Gerhardie W. Poligloty [The Polyglots]. Yekaterinburg, Moscow, Armchair Scientist Publ., 2017, 440 p. (Transl. from English).
- Il’in I. P. Postmodernizm [Postmodernism]. Moscow, Intrada Publ., 2001, 384 p. (In Russian).
- Krasavchenko T. William Gerhardie: an English Writer with a Russian Accent: On the Russian Revolution and the Civil War. Quaestio Rossica. 2017, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 941–957, DOI: 10.15826/qr.2017.4.260. (In Russian).
- Liotar Zh.-F. Marginal Notes. Kommentarii [Comments]. 1997, no. 11, pp. 215. (In Russian).
- Liotar Zh.-F. Sostojanie postmoderna [Postmodern State]. Moscow, St. Petersburg, Aletejja Publ., 1998, 159 p. (Transl. from French).
- Lipoveckij M. N. Russkij postmodernizm: ocherki istoricheskoj pojetiki [Russian Postmodernism: Essays on Historical Poetics]. Yekaterinburg, Ural Pedagogical University Publ., 1997, 317 p (In Russian).
- L’vov K. Everything is in the Hands of the Lord — and Mother Teresa. Radio Svoboda [Radio of Liberty]. 2017, June 12. URL : https://www.svoboda.org/a/28534000.html (accessed: 09.04.2021). (In Russian).
- Tolstoj L. N. Ivan Ilyich’s Death. Sobranie sochinenij : v 22 tomah [Collected Works; in 22 vols.]. Moscow, Belles Lettres Publ., 1978–1985, vol. 12 : Novellas and Stories. 1885–1902, 1982, pp. 54–107. (In Russian).
- Shakespeare W. Hamlet. Sonety [Tragedies. Sonnets]. Moscow, Belles Lettres Publ., 1968, vol. 36, pp. 123–246. (Transl. from English).
- Bertens H. The Postmodern Weltanschauung and its Relation with Modernism: An Introductory Survey. Approaching Postmodernism: Papers Presented at a Workshop on Postmodernism. Fokkema D., Bertens H. (eds.). Amsterdam, Philadelphia, 1986, pp. 9–51.
- Davies D. William Gerhardie: a Biography. Oxford, N. Y., Oxford University Press Publ., 1991, 411 p.
- Gerhardie W. Anton Chekhov. A Critical Study, L., Cobden-Sanderson Publ., 1923, 192 p.
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- Maes-Jelinek H. William Gerhardie. Criticism of Society in the English Novel between the Wars. Paris, Societe d’Editions “Les Belles Lettres” Publ., 1970, pp. 283–300.
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Curiosities and Rarities of Handwritten Manuscripts in the State Archive of the Ryazan Region ” P. 105-115.
Abstract. The analysis of handwritten manuscripts stored in regional archival collections has been gaining greater relevance, for it promotes deeper investigation of the worldview of people of past epochs, both city dwellers and rural dwellers. The article analyzes a number of underinvestigated
handwritten manuscripts of the 18th–19th centuries that are preserved in the State Archive of the Ryazan Region. Special attention is given to exceptionally rare and historically or culturally significant sources. The author of the article is primarily interested in literary texts. The author of the article analyzes them through the prism of history, culture and everyday life of the epoch when they were created. The aim of the article is to share findings that can further promote the investigation of the issue. Documents preserved in regional archival collections can help a researcher to understand the evolution and transformation of urban dwellers’ and rural dwellers’ tastes, morals and customs.
Keywords: archival materials, literary sources, rare texts, handwritten manuscripts of the 18th–19th centuries.
- Bolotov A. T. Izbrannoe [Selected Works]. Pskov, Pskov Regional Teacher Training Institute Publ., 1993, 352 p. (In Russian).
- Gosudarstvennyj arhiv Rjazanskoj oblasti. Nauchnaja biblioteka; no. 13119, Sbornik raznyh vypisok i pisem; no 13370, Sochinenija i bumagi S. P. Rumjanceva [State Archive of the Ryazan Region. Research Library; no, 13119, Collected Letters and Notes; no. 13370, S. P. Rumyantsev’s Essays and Documents]. Vol. 1 ; F. 869, Op. 1, D. 484 : Rukopisnyj sbornik rjazanskogo kupca [A Ryazan Merchant’s Manuscripts]; D. 610 : Sbornik basen neizvestnogo avtora [Collected Fables by an Unknown Author]. (In Russian).
- Gubin D. V., Sevast’janova A. A. Describing Manuscripts of the State Archive of the Ryazan Region. Rjazanskaja vivliofika [Ryazan Bibliophics]. Ryazan, Aleksandr Rautman Publ., 2001, iss. 2, pp. 3–18. (In Russian).
- Trudy Rjazanskoj uchenoj arhivnoj komissii (TRUAK) [Works of Ryazan Scientific Archival Commission]. Ryazan, Province Publ., vol. 2, iss. 2, 1888, pp. 24–25 ; vol. 4 : Appendices, 1890, 4 p. ; vol. 5, iss. 4, pp. 39–58. (In Russian).
- Krestova L. V. S. P. Rumyantsev — a Writer and a Publicist (1755–1838). Russkaja literatura XVIII veka. Jepoha klassicizma [Russian Literature of the 18th Century. The Epoch of Classicism]. Moscow, Leningrad, Science Publ., 1964, pp. 91–128. (In Russian).
- Kuz’mina V. D. Parody in Satirical and Humorous Manuscripts of the 18th Century. Zapiski otdela rukopisej Gosudarstvennoj biblioteki imeni V. I. Lenina [Manuscripts of the Department of Manuscripts of the State Library named for V. I. Lenin]. Moscow, 1955, iss. 17, pp. 145–153. (In Russian).
- Pryzhov I. G. Stat’i. Pis’ma [Essays. Articles. Letters]. Moscow, Leningrad, Academy Publ., 1934, 486 p. (In Russian). (In Russian).
- Pyljaev M. P. Staryj Peterburg. Rasskazy o byloj zhizni stolicy [The Old St. Petersburg. Tales of the Olden Days]. Moscow, OLMA Media Grupp Publ., 2014, 304 p. (In Russian).
- Rovinskij D. A. Russian Folk Drawings: b. 1. Sbornik otdelenija russkogo jazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoj Akademii nauk [Collected Works of the Department of the Russian Language of the Imperial Academy of Sciences]. 1881, vol. 23, pp. 341–343. (In Russian).
- Kurganov E. Ohtin N. (comps.). Pycckij literaturnyj anekdot konca XVIII — nachala XIX veka [Russian Literary Jokes of the Late 18th — Early 19th Centuries]. Moscow, Belles Lettres Publ. 1990, 270 p. (In Russian).
- Filippov D. Ju. The Fire of 1837 in Ryazan: Essays about Everyday Life of the First Half of the 19th Century. Urbi et orbi. Ryazan, Politeh Publ., 2020, pp. 214–264. (In Russian).
- Fonvizin D. I. Sobranie sochinenij : v 2 tomah [Collected Works: in 2 vols.]. MakogonenkoP. (comp.). Moscow, State Publishing House of Fiction Publ., 1959, vol. 2, 742 p. (In Russian).
Political Islam in the Social Life of Afghanistan (Late 20th — Early 21st Centuries) ” P. 98-104.
Abstract. The period investigated in the article was marred by serious upheavals in the Middle East. The situation in Afghanistan was more tragic and complicated than the situation in adjacent countries. The political commotion, the ensuing civil conflict and American intervention plunged the multinational country into political disarray. At present (since 2002) Afghanistan is a geographical location that can be tentatively called an Islamic Republic. It is characterized by ethnic fragmentation (a feudal anachronism), nominal centralized government headed by a US protégé. The government is not supported by Afghan society, there has been more than a half century of conflict which has claimed lives of many politicians, the government has been ignored by the population for several decades. The new generations of Afghan people grew under the conditions of a never-ending war, which has a gruesome impact on society. The article uses available sources on modern military, political, social, economic, ethnic and confessional situation in Afghanistan. Special attention is given to travel notes written by American and French experts R. Morey and O. Weber, who specialize in economic and humanitarian aid. The travel notes published by western media are an interpretation of official reports, but they discuss real life situations. The article also analyzes statistical reports and UN documents which describe problems and failures of the Afghan government to carry out economic and social modernization plans elaborated by American experts. It should be noted that there are depressingly few sources one can rely on when exploring modern Afghan history and the aforementioned sources meet the requirements of the article.
Keywords: Islamism, dictatorship, economy, crisis, civil conflict, expansion, western democracy.
- Makgirk T. Harvesting Opium. Stolichnye novosti [Capital News]. 2004, no. 29, pp. 11. (In Russian).
- Ali Sh. T. Beyond Kabul. The Economist. 2003, Oct., 18, pp. 56–57.
- Cole D. Biting the Hand that Feeds, The Economist. 2003, Oct., 4, p. 57.
- Epstein M., Guilloteau J.-P. Pakistan. Nos Reportes Racontent. L’Express. 2004, Jan., 19, p. 42 (In French).
- Moreau R. Reining in the Warlords. Newsweek. 2003, Apr., 28, p. 24.
- Musil S. Walking a Fine Line. Newsweek. 2008, June, 9, р. 38.
- Thomas A. And there’s Another Country. The Economist. 2010, Sept., 13, p. 56.
- Weber O. Afghanistan. Les Etrangers en Ligne de Mire. Le Point. 2003, N 1604, p. 41. (In French).
- Wesolowsky B. Where Opium is Half of GDP. The Economist. 2003, Sept., 27, pp. 58–59.
Serbia and the Support of an Uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875–1878 ” P. 88-97.
Abstract. The article investigates the contribution of the Principality of Serbia to supporting an uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875–1878. The fact that the Principality of Serbia supported the uprising worsened the already strained relationship between the Principality of Serbia and the Ottoman Empire, which resulted in the concentration of Turkish armed forces near the borders of the countries. Some public figures, such as metropolitan Mikhail, initiated charitable donations to help Serbian citizensliving in Bosnia and Herzegovina. They established committees in support of the uprising, they transported volunteers to Bosnia and Herzegovina, they supplied weapons and money to the rebels. General Ranko Alimpic played a key role in the events on the Serbia-Bosnia border. The author concludes that despite the fact that the Principality of Serbia supported the rebels of Herzegovina, especially such pro-Serbian rebels as Mico Ljubibratic, the influence of the Principality of Serbia in Bosnia was more obvious, for Bosnia was vital to Montenegro interest. Even though the Principality of Serbia provided support to Bosnia, the Principality of Serbia failed to profit from it, for it was under pressure from Austria-Hungary.
Keywords: Principality of Serbia, uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875–1878, committees in support of the uprising, Metropolitan Mikhail, Nico Ljubibratic, Vaco Vidovic, Montenegro, Brodok Committee, Belgorod Committee, Herceg-Novi Committee.
- Arhiv vneshnej politiki Rossijskoj Imperii (AVPRI) [Archive of the External Policy of the Russian Empire (AEPRE)]. F. 180, Op. 517/2, D. 4363, Ch. 1. (In Russian).
- Arhipov S. V. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov’ i Vostochnyj krizis 1875–1878 godov [Russian Orthodox Church and the Eastern Crisis in 1875–1878]. Moscow, 2016, 288 p. (In Russian).
- Vsemirnaja illjustracija [Global Illustrations]. 1876, no. 383. (In Russian).
- Vjazemskaja E. K. Vosstanija v Bosnii i Gercegovine i Rossijskaja diplomatija (1875 — aprel’ 1877) [Uprisings in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Russian Diplomacy (1875 — April 1877). Moscow, 1984, 210 p. (In Russian).
- Rossija i vosstanie v Bosnii i Gercegovine. 1875–1878. Dokumenty [Russia and the Uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1875–1878. Documents]. Moscow, Indrik Publ., 2008, 448 p. (In Russian).
- Skal’kovskij K. A. In the Country of Yoke and Liberty. Notes of Travel in the Caucasus, Asia Minor, European Turkey, Montenegro, Serbia, Austria-Hungary, the United States of America. Russkie
o Serbii i serbah [The Russians about Serbia and the Serbs]. St. Petersburg, Aletejja Publ., 2006, vol. 1 : Letters, Articles, Memoirs, pp. 126–136. (In Russian).
- Alimpiћ M. Zhivot i rad generala Ranka Alimpiћa u svezi sa dogaђaјima iz naјnove srpske istoriјe. Beograd, Kraљevsko-srpska drzhavna shtampariјa Publ., 1892, 752 p. (In Serbian).
- Arhiv Srbije (AS), F. MID, D. 337, 402, 1293. (In Serbian).
- Grujiћ Zapisi. Beograd, Buduћnost Publ., 1923, vol. 3, 406 p. (In Serbian).
- Ekmečić M. Ustanak u Bosni. 1875–1878. Sarajevo, Vaselin Maslesa Publ., 1973, 653 p. (In Bosnian).
- Ekmechiћ M. Dugo kretaњe izmeђu klaњa i oraњa. Istoriјa Srba u novom veku (1492–1992), Beograd : Evro-Guinti, 2011, 606 s. (In Serbian).
- Zhiveti u Beogradu 1868–1878. Dokumenta uprave grada Beograda, Beograd : Istorijski arhiv Beograda, 2006, 574 s. (In Serbian).
- Zastava [The Frontier]. 1875, А, 8 , no. 87. (In Russian).
- Irijart S. Bosna i Hercegovina. Putopis iz vremena ustanka. 1875–1876, Sarajevo, Veselin Masleša Publ., 1981, 200 p. (In Bosnian).
- Istok [The Source]. 1875, Aug., 4, no. 66. (In Russian).
- Jovanoviћ Vlada Milana Obrenoviћa. Beograd,Geca Kon Publ., 1934, vol. 1, 526 p. (In Serbian).
- MiliћeviћЂ. Dnevnik. II 23. septembar 1872 — 6. april 1877. Beograd, Arhiv Srbiјe Publ., 2015, 500 p. (In Serbian).
- Popov C. Srbija na putu oslobodjenja 1868–1878. Beograd, Nauchna kњiga Publ., 1980, 182 p. (In Serbian).
- Teinoviћ Naoruzhaњe ustanika u Bosni 1875–1878. godine. Vesnik. Chasopis za istoriјu, muzeologiјu i umetnost. Broј 36. Beograd, Voјni muzeј Publ., 2009, pp. 29–38. (In Serbian).
- Teinoviћ B. Zaboravљeno ime iz ustanka u Bosni 1875. godine: Dashan Vuћkoviћ, kraћi zhivotopis sa komentarom. Godina V. Broј 5. Baњaluka, Udruzheњa arhivskih radnika Republike Srpske Publ., 2013, pp. 417–425. (In Serbian).
- Chubriloviћ Bosanski ustanak 1875–1878. Beograd, Balkanoloshki institut SANU Publ., 1996, 384p. (In Serbian).
- Dyson St. L. The Last Amateur. The Life of William J. Stillman. Y., State University of New York Publ., 2014, 360 p.
- New York Herald, 1875, Nov. 18, no. 14321.
- Kuneralp S. (ed.). Ottoman Diplomatic Documents on “the Eastern Question”. Balkan Crisis (1875–1878). Part 1. From the Bosnian Uprising to the War with Serbia and Montenegro. July 1875 — June 1876. Tokay, Istanbul, The ISIS Press Publ., 2013, 740 p.
- Stillman W. J. Herzegovina and the Late Uprising. London, Longmans Publ., Green and Co. Publ., 1877, 218 p.
- Sükrü Hanioglu M. A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire. Princeton, Princeton University.
Naturalization, Labor and Market: Three Essays by John Locke ”P. 78-87.
Abstract. The article presents three essays written by John Locke (1632–1704): “For a General Naturalization” (1693), “Labor” (1693), “Venditio” (1695). The essays were not published during the philosopher’s lifetime and have never been previously translated into Russian. Written in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution (1688–1689), the three essays focus on political issues facing post-revolutionary England. The economic and financial crisis of the 1690s had a direct impact on the living conditions of the population and resulted in resource deficit which Locke planned to overcome by means of labor and international trade. Locke underlines the pivotal role of labor as a prerequisite for common wellbeing. Locke believes that the improvement of the mind is a way to reduce political tension. He maintains that it is essential that courtiers should give up luxurious and degrading habits. He believes that a ruler’s example will promote honest labor. Locke lambasts xenophobia and advocates naturalization. Despite the fact that the Naturalization Act of 1693 granted assistance to Huguenots who fled to England after the repeal of the Edict of Nantes of 1685, Locke treats the issue in a broader sense and advocates that migrant workers willing to become naturalized and loyal to their new country are a great asset in augmenting the national wealth. Promoting free market prices, Locke underlines the necessity of holding to the scholastic concept of economic ethics and of setting standards of fairness and compassion in transactions.
Keywords: wealth, Huguenots, xenophobia, compassion, aiding the poor, rulers’ examples, absolute necessity, common good, Glorious Revolution, scholastic tradition.
- Forde S. The Charitable John Locke // The Review of Politics. — 2009, Summer. — Vol. 71, no. 3. — Pp. 428–458.
- Guzman R. A., Munger M. C. Euvoluntariness and just market exchange: moral dilemmas from Locke’s Venditio // Public Choice. — 2014. — N 158. — Рp. 39–49.
- Locke J. An Essay concerning Human Understanding / Ed. by P. H. Nidditch. — Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1975. — 748 p.
- Locke on Money : in 2 vols. / Ed. by P. H. Kelly. — Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1991. — 664 p.
5.Locke: Political Essays / Ed. by M. Goldie. — Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1997. — 409 p.
6.Locke: Political Writings / Ed. by D. Wootton. — Indianapolis/Cambridge : Hackett Publishing Company, 1993. — 479 p.
7.Resnick D. John Locke and the Problem of Naturalization // The Review of Politics. — 1987, Summer. — Vol. 49, no. 3. — Pp. 368–388.
- Swanson S. G. The Medieval Foundations of John Locke’s Theory of Natural Rights: Rights of Subsistence and the Principle of Extreme Necessity. History of Political Thought. — 1997, Autumn. — Vol. 18, no. 3. — Pp. 399–459.
- The Educational Writings of John Locke / Ed. by J. L. Axtell. — Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1968. — 442 p.
- Waddell B. The Politics of Economic Distress in the Aftermath of the Glorious Revolution, 1689–1702 // The English Historical Review. — 2015, Apr. — Vol. 130, no. 543. — Pp. 318–351.
The Characteristics of Buddhism in the Chita Region in the Early 1980s ” P. 69-77.
Abstract. The article analyzes a previously uninvestigated page of Chita history, namely the history of the spread of Buddhism in the Chita Region (East Zabaykalye) in the early 1980s. The aim of the research is to investigate the characteristics of Buddhism in the Chita Region, its spread and adaptation during the aforementioned period. The author underlines an appalling scarcity of published materials on the issue, which necessitated the use of documents of the State Archive of the Russian Federation. The corpus of analyzed archival documents is mainly constituted of official documents, reports issued by the representatives of the Council for Religious Affairs of the USSR in the Chita Region, information reports, and letters. The analysis of various sources enables the author to conclude that in the early 1980s Buddhism, unlike other religions, experienced little oppression. The majority of believers lived in the Agin-Buryat Autonomous District of the Chita Region. There was a Buddhist monastery, Aginsky Datsan, which was the only functioning Buddhist monastery in the East Zabaykalye. There were regular religious services (khurals) that were attended by hundreds of believers who donated quite large sums of money. Vast amounts of money were received as a compensation for ritual services. A. I. Borodin, a representative of the Council for Religious Affairs of the USSR in the Chita Region, attempted to show in his reports that believers were primarily elderly people, a statement the author of the article is rather skeptical of. Buddhist priests expressed some contradictory views on certain issues. The author of the article believes that it is necessary to continue investigating the history of Buddhism in East Zabaykalye during the Soviet era.
Keywords: religion, Buddhism, Lamaism, datsan, lama, ritual, believers, Chita Region, Agin-Buryat Autonomous District.
- Barinov A. Buddhist Studies in Zabaykalye. Religiovedenie [Religious Studies], 2012, no. 2, pp. 179–185. (In Russian).
- Berzin A. Tibet Buddhism in Buryatia and Chita (1990). Buddizm v mongol’skih regionah Sojuza Sovetskih Socialisticheskih Respublik v 1990 godu [Buddhism in Mongol Areas of the Soviet Union in 1990]. Available at : https://studybuddhism.com/ru/prodvinutyy-uroven/istoriya-i-kultura/buddizm-v-rossii/buddizm-v-mongolskih-regionah-sssr-v-1990-g/tibetskiy-buddizm-v-buryatii-i-chite-1990-g (accessed 07.01.2021). (In Russian).
- Boronova M. M., Stepanova T. G. Governmental Policies in Relation to Orthodox and Buddhist Religions in Buryatia (1943–1961). Vestnik Burjatskogo universiteta [Bulletin of Buryat University]. 2012, no. 7, pp. 135–139. (In Russian).
- Garri I. R. (ed.). Buddizm v istorii i kul’ture burjat [Buddhism in the Buryat History and Culture]. Ulan-Ude, Burjaad-Mongol Nom Publ., 2014, 418 p. (In Russian).
- Vanchikova C. P., Chimitdorzhin D. G. Istorija buddizma v Burjatii: 1945–2000 gody [The History of Buddhism in Buryatia: 1945–2000]. Ulan-Ude, Buryatia Research Centre of the Siberian Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences Publ., 2006, 132 p. (In Russian).
- Gorbatov A. V. Buddhists and the Soviet State in 1946–the 1960s. Rossijskaja istorija [Russian History]. 2018, no. 5, pp. 77–88. DOI: 10.31857/S086956870001572-7(In Russian).
- Gosudarstvennyj arhiv Rossijskoj Federacii (GА RF) [State Archive of the Russian Federation (SA RF)]. F. R-6991. Op. 6. 1643. L. 1–2 ; D. 1726. L. 166 ; D. 1876. L. 7–8 ; D. 2212. — L. 162 ; D. 2609. L. 3–4, 6–9.
- Zhamsueva D. S. Aginskie dacany kak pamjatniki istorii kul’tury [Agin Datsans as Cultural Monuments]. Ulan-Ude, 2001, 192 p. (In Russian).
- Bazarov V. (ed.). Istorija Burjatii [The History of Buryatia]. Ulan-Ude, Buryatia Research Centre of the Siberian Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences Publ., 2011, vol. 3, 464 p. (In Russian).
- Mitypov V. M. Istorija vzaimootnoshenij gosudarstva i buddijskoj cerkvi v Sojuze Sovetskih Socialisticheskih Respublik/Rossii: 1969–1990-e gody [The History of Relationships between the State and the Buddhist Churches in the Soviet Union/Russia: 1969–the 1990s]. Ulan-Ude, 2006, 26 p. (In Russian).
- Mitypov V. M. The State and the Buddhist Church in the Soviet Union/Russia: Legal Aspects. Vlast’ [Power]. 2011, no. 5, pp. 13–18. (In Russian).
- An Essay on the History of Buddhism in Buryatia, 2016. Asia Russia Daily. Available at : http://asiarussia.ru/buddhism/13458/ (accessed 07.02.2021). (In Russian).
- Namsaraeva A. D., Razlogov K. Je. (eds.). Tradicionnyj rossijskij buddizm kak faktor garmonichnogo vzaimodejstvija razlichnyh jetnosov i kul’tur Rossii na materiale zhizni, dejatel’nosti i nasledija Pandito Hambo lamy Dashi-Dorzho Jetigjelova (Itigjelova) [Traditional Russian Buddhism as a Factor of Harmonious Relationships between Different Russian Ethnicities and Cultures at the Example of Pandito Hambo lama Dashi Dorzho Etigelei (Itigilov)’ s Life and Legacy]. Moscow, Ulan-Ude, New Institute of Culturology Publ., 2018, 40 p. (In Russian).
- Cyrempilov N. V. Buddhism in Russia: the Past and the Present. Vlast’ [Power]. 2013, no. 4, pp. 84–86. (In Russian).
- Chimitdorzhin D. G. Istorija buddistskoj cerkvi v Burjatii: 1945–2000 gody [History of the Buddhist Churches in Buryatia]. Ulan-Ude, 2005, 154 p. (In Russian).
- Justine B. Q. Buddhists, Shamans, and Soviets: Rituals of History in Post-Soviet Buryatia (Oxford Ritual Studies Series). Oxfordshire County, Oxford University Press Publ., 2015, 256 p.
- Lopes D. S. The Story of Buddhism: A Concise Guide to History and Teachings, N. Y., HarperOne Publ., 2009, 288 p.
- Tibetan Buddhism in Buryatia and Chita 1990. Study Buddhism. Available at : https://com/en/advanced-studies/history-culture/buddhism-in-russia/buddhism-in-the-mongol-regions-of-the-ussr-1990/tibetan-buddhism-in-buryatia-and-chita-1990 (accessed 07.01.2021).
The Image of a Soviet Woman as Depicted by Mass Media in the 1950s–1960s and Engraved in Social Memory (regional aspects) ” P. 59-68.
Abstract. The article investigates the image of a Soviet woman as portrayed by provincial mass media. The article analyzes such underrated sources of reliable information as egodocuments and radio performances, which enables the author to compare the idealized image of a Soviet woman and the real image of a Soviet woman of the 1950s–1960s. Mass media created an ideologically “proper” image of a female worker who was actively involved in family and social life. Despite the fact that many “ordinary” Soviet women did their best to fully realize their potential in at least one sphere of life, they had no means to conform to the ideal image broadcast by the media. Due to the discrepancy between the ideal and realistic images, Soviet women often fell victim to social and political criticism. Gnawed by the fear of censure and the desire to condemn others, women were forced to acquire certain behaviour patterns dictated by mass culture.
Keywords: image of a woman, the Khrushchev thaw, female magazines, radio performances, female memory.
- Berezina V. Ju. The Image of Soviet Women as Represented by the Ogonek Magazine during the Khrushchev Thaw. Mediareal’nost’ Rossii: vchera, segodnja, zavtra [Media Reality in Russia: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow]. Martynenko E. V. (ed.). Moscow, People’s Friendship University of Russia Publ., 2019, pp. 52–61. (In Russian).
- Glejzer M. Radio i televidenie v Soyuze sovetskih socialisticeskih respublik: Daty i fakty (1917–1963) [Radio and Television in the Soviet Union: Dates and Facts (1917–1963)]. Moscow, 1965, 230 p. (In Russian).
- Gosudarstvennyj arhiv Volgogradskoj oblasti (GAVO) [State Archive of the Vologda Region (SAVR)]. F. R-6174, Op. 2 ; F. R-6880, Op. 6. (In Russian).
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A Dramatic Turn in Oil Production and Oil Refining at the End of World War II: the Mechanics of Implementation ” P. 47-58.
Abstract. The relevance of the research is accounted for by the necessity to further investigate the history of World War II and to assess the effectiveness of strategies that were used to ensure unfailing energy supply for the Soviet Army and the civilian population. The aim of the article is to investigate
previously unpublished archival materials discussing the causes of the fall in oil production and oil refining volumes in the beginning of the war, to identify the major stages oil industry underwent during World War II, to explore the mechanics of overcoming the energy crisis and bringing about a dramatic turn in oil production and oil refining. The object of the research is the process of implementing the national policy aimed at oil industry militarization. The authors conclude that despite a great number of difficulties the Soviet state had to face in the beginning of the war, it managed to solve an unprecedentedly significant problem: oil industry relocation to the eastern regions was accompanied by the increase in the exploration, production and refining of oil to ensure unfailing energy supply for military and civilian purposes. Oil industry workers’ selfless commitment made it possible to significantly expedite the construction of oil plants and to revolutionize oil industry. In 1943 oil industry started developing rapidly, new drilling and refining equipment was produced, oil exploration was intensified. The role of the Volga-Ural region became more prominent. Nowadays the Soviet experience of oil industry modernization during the investigated period is acquiring relevance.
Keywords: World War II, oil production, oil refining, “Glavneftemash”, “Azneftemash”.
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The German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact of 23 August 1939. Its Meaning and Significance ” P. 35-46.
Abstract. During the 1930s, the Soviet Union did its best to build a collective security system in Europe in order to prevent the spread of the Nazi menace. However, the ruling circles of Great Britain, France and Italy nullified the efforts by signing the ignoble Munich Agreement. The military negotiations
between England, France and the USSR that were held in Moscow in August 1939 were a dismal failure. The western partners delayed the negotiations trying to reach an agreement with Berlin behind the back of the Soviet Union. Further delay threatened to put Russia in a position when it had to oppose a united western front. Trying to build a collective security system in Europe, the Soviet government had to handle the sabotage campaign launched by the ruling circles of England and France and had to accept the arrival of the German Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop in Moscow to sign a non-aggression pact. Unlike British and French ministers, the German minister was authorised to sign such documents. On 23 August 1939, J. von Ribbentrop and V. M. Molotov signed the non-aggression pact. The decision was taken under a two-front military threat (there were outbursts of fierce fighting near the Khalkhin-Gol river, which could escalate into a full-scale confrontation with Japan. The German-Soviet non-aggression pact gave the USSR a chance to enhance its defence and diminished the aggressive efforts of fascist militarists. The pact cannot be treated as violation of international law. It is in no way related to the German invasion of Poland preceding World War II.
Keywords: England, World War II, China, Munich Agreement. Nazi Germany, France, World War I. German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact, Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Japan.
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The History of Creating and Developing the National Jewish Theatre named for L. Kaganovich in the 1930s Р. 27-34.
Abstract. In the 1920s Soviet Russia witnessed rapid development of national art which was intricately connected with the national policy promoted by the Soviet government. Soviet Russia as well as the Russian Federation granted all its citizens ample rights and freedoms. The Soviet State enabled allpeoples inhabiting its territories to develop their national art, to create national theatres. The author of the article believes that this experience is worthy and should define the national policy of the 21st century. Driven by this conviction, the author of the article analyzes the peculiarities of the development of the theatre in the Jewish Autonomous Region. The author focuses her attention on the development of the National Jewish Theatre named for L. Kaganovich in the 1930s paying special attention to the theatre staff and their achievements. The article tells about the initial stage of the theatre formation when due to the resettlement policy many Jewish actors were forced to move to the Far East. The author underlines that the actors of the theatre supported all the cultural establishments of the autonomous region by helping organize amateur dramatic societies, giving patronage to the Red Army. The author concludes that the professional development of the National Jewish Theatre of Birobidzhan was a reflection of the Jewish policy of the Soviet government in the 1930s.
Keywords: history of Birobidzhan National Jewish Theatre, Jewish theatre, Jewish Autonomous Region, repertoire, European theatres.
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